Route 53 zone record contains a special record type called ALIAS which can be used to redirect a domain name to a load balancer or S3 bucket url.
CNAME records are used for sub domains
Both load balancers and S3 buckets have no ip only a DNS name
Every hosted zone contains minimum two records NS and SOA (start of authority)
Route 53 is global (no region)
Traffic is distributed based on Routing Policies
Simple one to one
Simple Routing Policy: One single A record pointing to ip or alias pointing to ELB/S3/Cloud Front
Resilient pillar based policies
Failover policy: Need two record sets of type Failover. Choose Active in one and Passive in the other. If Active site fails, traffic is diverted to Passive Site. You need to create a Health Check in Route 53.
Performance pillar based policies: #7 and #8 use a single end point at any given time. But below three use multiple endpoints and distribute across them for performance
Weighted routing policy: Distributes the traffic across 2 or more endpoints based on the weights. You create N records with weights (number between 1 and 256) and point to N different endpoints. Aggregates all the weights and applies ratios.
Latency routing policy: Distributes the traffic across 2 or more endpoints based on the latency. Create two record sets of type Latency and provide region 1 and region 2 and it will choose target based on lowest latency
Geo-location Routing Policy: Distributes the traffic across 2 or more endpoints based on the client’s geographic location.