FMEA Process Flow – Failure Mode and Effect of Failure Mode

Potential Failure Mode of the Function

* The ways in which the part could fail to perform its intended design function.. it should be described in a “negative” way.
* Stress how the part could fail, not whether it will fail, to conform to the design specification
* Try asking what could happen to cause a loss of function:
– “How could this part fail?”, or
– “Could it break, deform, wear, corrode, bind, leak, short, open, etc.?”

FMEA-Process-Flow

* Examples of failure modes:
– Isolate electrical data signals → loss of dielectric
– Provide mating surface to part B → worn mating surface
– Provide dielectric material for impedance →  loss of signal transmission integrity
– Provide engaging tab for cam →  bent tab
– Corrosion – Cannot assemble   – Over-deflection

Assume
that the failure could occur for now. Later we will deal with the likelihood of its occurrence. Refer back to the list of functions when asking the What If questions. Also refer back to the FTA to help ensure completeness here.

List each potential failure mode for the part. Note that for these examples, the failure modes are shown following the part’s basic functions (optional).

Other possible failure modes could be a part oxidizing, fracturing, sticking, loosening, not transferring a force, not assembling readily with a mating part, drift, disengaging during operation, etc.

FMEA Process Flow – Effect of Failure Mode

FMEA-Process-Flow-Effect-Of-Failure-Mode

Potential Effect(s) of the Potential Failure Mode

* The outcome of the occurrence of the failure mode on the part or assembly (system).
* Describe the effect of the failure specifically, and in terms of customer reaction: “What does the customer (external or internal) experience as a result of the failure mode of…” or  “Will the component or assembly be inoperative, intermittently operative, noisy, not durable, etc.?”
* Consider whether the effect can also impact other functions or parts.

Examples of effects:

* Loss of dielectric →  low withstanding voltage → assembly shorts out
* Bent tab →  cannot assemble mating part
* Worn mating surface → mating part does not engage
* Loss of signal transmission integrity → incorrect data transmission
* Tab edge does not engage cam → auxiliary bolt sticks
* Cannot assemble → lost time and wasted costs in Final Assembly
* Corrosion → part loses yield strength, with a lower MTBF

DFMEA – Function of the Part

What is Function of the Part?

  • The function of the part is the task that it must perform to meet its design intent. it should be described in a
    way that is concise, exact and clear to all participants and users
  • Use a verb-noun format

Examples:

–    Isolate electrical data signals
–    Provide mating surface to part B
–    Provide dielectric material for impedance
–    Provide engaging tab for cam
–    Last for 40,000 cycles
–    Operate within specified environmental conditions
–    Be manufactured at specified productivity and quality rates Right about now in the FMEA process would be a good time to perform the Fault Tree Analysis FTA. Then you would transfer the information to the FMEA form as you go through the steps. Note that you will likely adding to that information, but it is an excellent way to make the FMEA more thorough.

Although the DFMEA assumes the part will be manufactured to the design intent, it should still take into account realistic limitations of the manufacturing and assembly processes, e.g., clearances for tooling, achievable tolerance capabilities, realistic parts/hour rates, etc.

Design FMEA – Use this blank form to develop your own example.

Design-FMEA-Blank-Form

DFMEA Example

The failure mode could potentially lead to deteriorated door panel life (a failure mode effect of door panel corrosion), resulting in poor appearance and impaired function of the interior door hardware.Note: it is acceptable to break down the effect in a chain of events as shown if it better describes the problem being worked on. The effect is described from the perspective of the customer, although the description need not be in the customer’s’ language.  The severity of the deteriorated door life effect is rated as a 6 here.

There are 4 potential design-based root causes of the door panel corrosion (the failure mode here) listed. Note that while these causes may show up in fabrication or assembly, they are design-based, that is, the designers specify their values or settings. Each cause receives its own probability of occurrence rating score, based on the likelihood of the cause happening and its resulting in the failure mode.

The only design verifications (DVs) presently in place are the Design group’s phase design reviews. The ability of the design reviews to prevent the design-based cause (or detect the potential failure mode) from happening is assessed for each of the causes listed.

Then the RPN is calculated for each cause so that their corrective/preventive actions can be prioritized. The highest scores become the highest priorities. The fact that none of the scores is close to the maximum possible score (1000) does not mean anything. Just the relative scores are meaningful.

Design-FMEA-Example2

  • The Design FMEA (DFMEA) needs to be done early in the product design cycle, after the design concept has been selected since it needs detailed part functions; it should be continually updated as the program develops.
  • FMEA can be applied as a supporting method as part of the Concurrent Engineering development process.
  • Try for some concurrency between the Design and Process FMEAs.

The information developed from the DFMEA will provide excellent input for the earlier phases of the Concurrent Engineering or Integrated Product Development processes, and vice versa. Having some timing overlap (concurrency) between the DFMEA and the PFMEA will further reduce the Time to Market.

If an existing design, on which there is already a DFMEA, is applied in a different environment or usage, then the FMEA should be focused on the impact of the new environment or application.

Design-FMEA

The DFMEA process will be explained and demonstrated using the numbering scheme shown on the preceding blank DFMEA form. You may want to periodically refer back to this blank form as each step and column of the process is described. There will also be a flowchart that progressively develops in sequence with the numbered steps.

Design FMEA (DFMEA) Tutorial

DFMEA  – Introduction

In this DFMEA tutorial you will learn:

Completing the Design FMEA Form:

  • Identifying the Product Function
  • Identifying Potential Failure Modes
  • Identifying Potential Failure Effects
  • Determining the Severity of the Effect
  • Identifying Potential Cause(s) of the Failure Mode
  • Determining the Probability of Occurrence of the Failure Mode
  • Identifying Design Verifications for the Causes
  • Determining the Probability of Non-Detection of the Failure Mode

Using the Completed DFMEA Form:

  • calculating the Risk Priority Number (RPN)
  • determining Corrective and Preventive Actions
  • prioritizing Actions Based on the RPN

What Is A Design FMEA?

* FMEA is a method for identifying potential or known failure modes and providing corrective and preventive actions.
* The Design FMEA is a disciplined analysis of the part design with the intent to correct or prevent the design-based failure modes prior to the first production run.

The FMEA Process:

* Identify potential or known failure modes
* Identify the effects and causes of each failure mode
* Prioritize the identified failure modes based on the frequency of occurrence, the severity of the failure mode, and the likelihood of detection
* Provide for follow-up corrective and preventive actions
* Follow up

Design FMEA Process Flow

Design-FMEA-Process-Flow

These steps of the FMEA will be discussed and explained later in detail, but it is helpful to see the overall flow, at this overview level, for now. Try to match the additional following examples to this flow to give you a feel for how Design FMEAs can be used.

DFMEA-Example

For this abbreviated example, there are 4 basic functions of the car door. One way (failure mode) the door could potentially fail to perform the last 2 basic functions listed is by the interior lower door panels becoming corroded.

Further Reading: iSixSigma Definition, FMEA article on Quality One

What is RACI or RASCI Matrix/Chart/Diagram? Download free templates

What is RACI ?

In Six Sigma, a well thought out and proper Process Design is very important for the process to be efficiently implemented for a longer term. We can design a process for an existing process which has no proper design and documentation or of course for a new process that we create from ground up. For this exercise of process design, it’s very important to first identify the various tasks in that process then identify the roles (people or groups or departments) and finally their responsibilities for a given task. Not all roles have a responsibility towards a task and a given task may not associate to all roles. Typically we associate a task with at least one role or in some cases multiple roles. You can divide this ‘Association’ of the role with a task  into the following four association types, which together form the RACI acronym  (full form  or pronunciation).

  • Responsible
  • Accountable
  • Consulted
  • Informed

We can represent  the above four types of association (of a role to a task) in a simple task versus role diagram or matrix or grid. We call this matrix RACI matrix (pronounced ‘racey’ matrix). So basically the RACI matrix is a responsibility assignment matrix (RAM), designed to assign tasks, activities, responsibilities, accountability, decision making, supporting to team members of a process/project  and clarify expectations on the level of their participation.

So what is RASCI ?

There is another association type that we sometimes use in addition to the above four types:

  • Supports

When you use all the five types in the matrix, its called RASCI (pronounced ‘race ski’) Matrix. Lets go thru each association type in detail below:

Responsible

The role or person or entity that we assign the role type ‘Responsible‘ is the one who performs the work. In other words he/she is the ‘doer’ of the task or activity. The person who is ‘Responsible’ need not be accountable for that task, even though in some cases the same person can be ‘Responsible’ and ‘Accountable’. The degree of ‘Responsibility’ can vary and multiple roles can share the responsibility of a single task. Also one role can delegate the responsibility to another role. Using the RACI matrix we can see if a role has too many or too few responsibilities and try to adjust the workload.

Accountable

‘Accountable’ is the person or role who has the final authority and accountability to a given task. For any given task, there is only one role/person accountable. We can’t delegate this accountability to other roles or individuals or entities.

Consulted

‘Consulted’ are the people or roles whom we consult and get advice from before and during performing the task. When there are many people who have ‘Consulted’ roles, the time taken to accomplish the task increases. On the other hand too few or no ‘Consulted’ roles assigned to a task means that task has the risk of underperforming.

Informed

Informed are the people/roles who, we inform after we complete the task. You need to assign the ‘Informed’ roles properly as otherwise it may lead to miscommunication and delays. You need to make sure the right people/roles are informed after we perform a task successfully.  If too many roles are informed after a task, we need to see if it’s necessary to do so and minimize on that.

Supported

‘Supported’ are the roles/groups/departments that provide the resources and hence support that task. This is an optional role type and if the matrix uses this category along with the other four RACI categories, then its called ‘RASCI’ matrix.

RACI Matrix or RACI Diagram (a.k.a Responsibility chart or

Responsibility assignment matrix)

Six-Sigma-RACI-Matrix

Why do we need RACI?

  • RACI is a good communication tool. Without RACI, six sigma processes will result in poor communication and improper process definition and poor hand-offs.
  • RACI makes sure each and every task has a owner (a role who owns the task).
  • People tend to think they are the ones who are responsible and/or accountable whereas they might actually be in ‘Consulted’ or ‘Supported’ roles. Assigning wrong roles results in duplication of effort and misunderstanding and even fighting in some cases.
  • RACI allows the right people to be assigned to the role of consulted.

RACI Charts – Advantages and benefits

Following are the advantages of RACI charts.

  • Well define activities and tasks in a six sigma process thru brainstorming.
  • By clarifying roles and responsibilities at the very initial stage of the process design, RACI helps setting up the proper expectations among team members and hence reduces future misunderstandings.
  • Eliminates duplication of effort
  • RACI helps improved communication by setting up the proper expectations among team members at the very initial process design stage.
  • Identifies the owner of a task clearly and assigns accountability to that role.
  • By ensuring that the correct people are involved, RACI helps in avoiding wrong decisions.
  • RACI clarifies hand-offs and task/role/responsibility boundaries.
  • Improves understanding of cross-functional view for employees  across divisions or departments, and helps employees across various groups respect and appreciate the roles and duties of people from other groups.

Six-Sigma-RACI-Charts

 Step by Step procedure to create RACI Charts

  1. Determine the functions, decisions, tasks and activities that will make up the process or project.
  2. Identify who will be the project’s participants.
  3. 1,2 will make up the rows and columns of the RACI chart.
  4. Identifying how each participant involves with each function, decision,task, activity.
  5. Fill out the grid with the letters R(responsible),  A (accountable), C (consulted), or I (informed)

RACI Example

Lets take the simple two task example of designing the process for content management.

Task 1: Create Content

  • The Creative Team is the party that is responsible for doing or developing a content piece. So they are assigned a role of R.
  • The Marketing Team/Department is the Accountable party and assigned the role A and they own this process.
  • The IT team needs to be Informed when this task is completed, so IT Team is assigned the role of I.
  • The Legal Team responsible for Consulting and approving this content. Also they need to be notified when this task is done. They will be assigned C,I and even R

Task 2: Upload the content

  • The IT team is Responsible for the task of Uploading the content and Publishing it. Their role is assigned with R
  • The Marketing team is accountable and needs to be informed when this task is completed. So they are assigned A,I.

Discoveries/findings from RACI Chart

  • Each task/function/activity (row) should have ONE and only ONE Accountable (A).
  • Each task/function/activity (row) should have at least one Responsible. In some cases, a task can have more than one role responsible with shared responsibility.
  • If a task has more than one R then the task should be brainstormed further and see if it can be split into two tasks.
  • We should minimize the number of Consults.
  • Too many I’s is also not a good sign. Minimize the I’s so that only those who need to be Informed are informed.
  • If a column has no empty spaces, that means that Role/Person is involved with all tasks.  See if you can reduce C’s and I’s for this Role.
  • If a column has many R‘s – The role may have too much work to do. Try to break the task into small sections and delegate to other roles.
  • If a column has no A‘s or R‘s, may be we can eliminate this role from this process.
  • If a column has many A’s means this role may be a bottleneck. Try to see if  we can share these tasks.

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) – Download free templates

What is Quality Function Deployment (QFD)?

In Six Sigma DMAIC we use Quality Function Deployment (QFD) methodologies and tools in the Define stage.

QFD (Quality Function Deployment) is a customer-driven product (or service) planning process. It is a system for translating and deploying customer requirements into specific company requirements at each stage from Concept Definition (R&D) to Process Engineering and Production and into the marketplace.

Quality Function Deployment is a methodology to help us make the transition to up-front, prevention-based planning for robustness and   producibility.

QFD deploys the voice of the customer through a cross-functional team’s  project management of the integrated development process.  The QFD process establishes customer objectives and measures and records them on a series of matrices.

Quality Function Deployment collects the voice of the customer (VOC) in their own lingo and incorporates this VOC into the company’s cross-functional team’s project management of the integrated development process. The QFD process establishes customer objectives and measures and records them on a series of matrices.

Quality Function Deployment – QFD is used to:

  1. Collect customer’s requirements/desires as specified by the customers in their own words
  2. Prioritize these desires
  3. Translate them into engineering/process requirements
  4. Establish targets to meet the requirements.

Quality Function Deployment is also called:

  • Voice of the Customer
  • House of Quality
  • Customer-Driven Engineering
  • Matrix Product Planning

The Quality Function Deployment Matrix or QFD matrix

Quality Function Deployment - QFD Process, Translating CCR to CTQ

Quality Function Deployment - QFD Matrix

QFD matrix translates the CCRs into CTQs. The final score helps prioritize the CTQs and helps you decide which CTQs to tackle first.

Quality Function Deployment – QFD Methodology

  • Identify both internal and external customers.
  • Create a list of customer requirements/desires (Whats) by
    • Asking the customer, questions such as “What are the important features of  The Product”
    • Capturing the customer’s own words or “Voice of the Customer” or VOC
    • Categorizing the Whats into groups/buckets if needed.
  • Prioritize the above collected Whats on a scale of 1-5, with 5 being the most important. This ranking is based on the VOC (Voice of Customer) data. The CCRs (Whats) are listed vertically in the first column and all related CTQs (Hows) are listed horizontally across the top . In the second column, assign 1 to 5 based on the importance of the CCRs, where 5 is the most critical to the customer.
  • Score each CTQ (Hows) on how strongly it correlates to each CCR. Remember we are looking at the absolution value of the correlation. It can have either positive correlation or negative correlation. Use 5 for a strong correlation and 1 is a weak one. Leave it blank if there is no correlation. Some CCRs will have few CTQs that relate and rest unrelated.
  • Compile list of CTQs (Hows) necessary to achieve the CCRs (Whats.)
  • Translate the CCRs from VOC (Whats) into CTQs (Hows)
    • Arrows show direction for improvement (up for increasing, down for decreasing, etc.)
  • For each What, find out the correlation with each How. If the correlation is strong use 5. If its week use 1. If its in between, use a number 2, 3, 4 based on how strong the correlation is.
  • Next multiply the importance rating for the CCR by the correlation score for each CTQ.
  • Add up the scores vertically for each CTQ and place that value in the bottom score row.
  • Once you compute the score for all CTQs, the ones with the highest scores are the highest priority Six Sigma project objectives to work on.

How to create, use Six Sigma SIPOC tool? Download SIPOC Template

What is SIPOC

SIPOC is a Six Sigma tool used in the phase 1 or the “Define Phase” of the DMAIC process, to gather information about any process. SIPOC stands for: Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Output and Customers. A SIPOC tool is usually an Excel spreadsheet which lists all the five elements into five columns as shown below. In this SIPOC diagram, we are describing a process of upgrading the memory of a laptop.

Six-Sigma-SIPOC-Tool

What does SIPOC Include?

SIPOC shows a clear understanding of the process by including:

  • All the Suppliers who provide the inputs and services to the process.
    • Suppliers are individuals or divisions that supply inputs to the process.
    • Suppliers can be can be internal such as department, division, or individuals
    • Suppliers can be external such as vendors, government.
    • It is also possible that a supplier is also a customer.
    • In our example of upgrading the memory of a Laptop process, the suppliers are:
      • The Mechanic who provides his services
      • The vendors who supply the Memory, tools,
      • The utility that supplies electricity.
  • All the Inputs needed, including all raw materials, services, information.
    • In our example of upgrading the memory of a Laptop process, the inputs are the Laptop, Memory, Tools, Electricity.
  • The Process as depicted as a sequence of actions represented by a Flowchart diagram.
  • Outputs of the process are the products, services, information that comes out of this process and is used by the Customers.
    • In our example process, the upgraded Laptop and the old memory modules removed from the laptop.
  • The customers are the users who will use the outputs produced by the process.
    • In our example process, the customer is the Owner of the laptop.

How to create a SIPOC

  • SIPOC creation is a team activity.
  • Brainstorming must be done to discover details about a process, especially if its a new process.
  • All the stakeholders of the process must be part of this brainstorming.
  • Brainstorming must be done for each of the five elements: suppliers, inputs, process, outputs and customers of SIPOC.
  • If the process is new, it is a good idea to start SIPOC from customer and move backwards to supplier.
  • For an existing process that needs to be documented, SIPOC diagram is best created by first defining the process flowchart, and then identify inputs, outputs, customers, and suppliers.

Advantages of SIPOC

  • Helps us understand the purpose and the scope of a process
  • If lists all the suppliers clearly so we can see who is supplying to the process.
  • It gives us insight in to all the inputs of a process
  • It gives us insight in to all the outputs of a process
  • Graphically shows the process as a flowchart/sequence of actions so the new team members can easily understand the process.
  • All the customers are clearly identified, who will use the process outputs.

What are the differences between QFD and SIPOC?

Even though both QFD and SIPOC are used in the define stage of DMAIC, they are different.

  • SIPOC helps define a process where as QFD is used to take the customer’s voice and translate into engineering/process requirements.
  • SIPOC identifies suppliers, Inputs, process, Outputs and Customers where as QFD is used after SIPOC to gather customers voice and translate into CTQs (critical to quality)

Scatter Plots – Free Six Sigma Scatter Plot template

A scatter diagram is a graphical representation of two variables, one on X axis and the other on Y axis. Hence they are also known as XY plots. A Scatter plot depicts the relationship between the two variables and determines if there is a correlation between those two variables.When one variable changes if the other variable changes, then a correlation is said to exist between those two variables. We can use the correlation to predict behavior. Its very useful if one variable is easy to measure and the other variable is difficult to measure.

Scatter plots show large amounts of data in a chart form. When the points on the scatter plot come closer making it a straight line, the correlation between the variables is higher and the relationship between the variables is stronger.

Correlation Coefficient (R) and Coefficient of determination (R Squared)

Correlation Coefficient is measured as:

Correlation-Coefficient-Formula

R = [N * Sum(XY) – Sum(X)*Sum(Y)] / SQRT [N * Sum (X^2) – (Sum(X))^2] * SQRT [N * Sum (Y^2) – (Sum(Y))^2]

R is always between -1 and +1

Coefficient of determination is the square of R or R squared. This is always a positive number between 0 and +1

Six-Sigma-Scatter-Plot-Positive-Correlation

If the straight line goes up from left to right with higher values of X  corresponding to higher values of Y then the correlation is said to be  positive. A perfect positive correlation is of value +1. A good example of perfect positive correlation of +1 is the case where you use X grams of flour to make Y grams of Cake. As X increases Y increases proportionally and the correlation is equal to +1.

Six-Sigma-Scatter-Plot-Negative-Correlation

If the straight line goes down from left to right with higher values of X  corresponding to lower values of Y then the correlation is said to be negative. A perfect negative correlation is of value -1. A good example of perfect negative correlation of -1 is the case where  you have X amount of money in the bank and Y amount of additional money needed to become a millionaire. As X increases Y decreases   proportionally and the correlation is equal to -1.

Six-Sigma-Scatter-Plot-No-Correlation

If there is no relationship between the variables, then the plot does not look like a straight line, rather it looks “scattered” all over the XY plane. If there is no correlation between the variables then the correlation value is 0.

The correlation value thus ranges from -1 to +1. As the correlation number gets closer to +1 or -1 such as 0.8991 0r -0.9023 then the relationship is said to be stronger. If the correlation number is closer to 0 such as -0.1023 or + 0.122 then the relationship is considered to be week.

Download Free Six Sigma Scatter Plot Tools and Templates

Download the six Sigma Scatter Plot Spreadsheet Template in Excel (xlsx) format

How to create Six Sigma Histogram? Download Excel template

Histograms are used to represent continuous data in the form of a diagram or chart. In the Analysis stage of DMAIC, Six Sigma histogram tools are used. Typically Histograms are represented as bar charts. Large amounts of data that is difficult to understand if represented in a tabular spreadsheet form.

In the Measure stage of DMAIC, the data is collected. Then this data is reviewed by the team. Typically the data collected is is of two types:

  1. Discrete data (true/false, fail/pass, success/failure )
  2. Continuous data (example: frequency, color, time). Histograms are best suited for representing this data.

Histograms can provide a visual display of such data by dividing this large data into a finite number of groups or buckets. Once the buckets are defined, you need to match and find out for every number what bucket it belongs to. Once a number is assigned to a bucket, you need to increment the frequency value of that bucket. Once all numbers are counted, you take the buckets and their frequencies and represent them in a bar chart with buckets on X axis and the the frequencies on the Y axis.

  • Histograms are used to understand how the output of a process effects customer expectations
  • They will help you find out if the process is capable of meeting customer requirements
  • Histograms are graphs of a distribution (frequency of occurrence) of data.
  • Histograms show centering, dispersion (spread), and shape (relative frequency) of the data.

Lets take the example of a part (a screw) which is manufactured at a plant. The ideal diameter of the screw is 52.3 mm. Lets measure the diameter of a random sample of 16 screws. The diameters are measured as below:

52.1 52.2 52 52.3 52.2 52.5 52.3 52.3 52.2 52.1 52.6 52.4 52.3 52.4 52.5 52.4

Lets group them into the following buckets:

52
52.1
52.2
52.3
52.4
52.5
52.6

Now lets count how many screws belong to each bucket and compute the frequency

Bucket Frequency
52 1
52.1 2
52.2 3
52.3 4
52.4 3
52.5 2
52.6 1

The above data can be represented as a bar chart as shown below:

Six Sigma Histogram

In Microsoft Excel, you can create a histogram very easily using the “Analysis Toolpack” Add-In. (Go to File/Options/Add-Ins and make sure the Analysis ToolPak AddIn is installed). All you need to do is input your data (in our case all the diameters) into a sheet. You can use one single column or multiple columns. Also decide what your buckets are. Put them in a separate column. Now go to data menu and choose Data Analysis/Histogram. For the Input range, choose the appropriate Excel range containing the diameter data. For the Bin Range choose the column that contains your buckets. For the output, you can choose a range or a new sheet option. Click OK and Excel will automatically create the histogram table and Chart for you. No need to count and find out manually the frequency. Its done for you by the Analysis Pack histogram tool.

Download Free Six Sigma Histogram Tools and Templates

Download the Microsoft Excel (xlsx) Spreadsheet Template for Six Sigma Histogram

Additional information about six sigma histograms can be found at: isixsigma site, sixsigma study guide site.

How to select a Six Sigma project? Download selection grid template.

In any company there are many processes that need to be improved at any given time. When the time and resources are limited, we need to prioritize the options and pick those processes first, that give the quickest and best results in the short amount of time span and are relatively easy to implement. This can be compared to an apple tree where there are low hanging fruit that is easy and quicker to pick compared to the rest of the fruit. One should always pick the low hanging processes first and fix them for problems and proceed to fix the rest of the processes.

When the quality level of a process is not very high, we can use the basic six sigma tools. Typically the sigma level for such processes is 2σ or 3σ. Once the quality level gets better pass beyond 3σ, we will need to use more sophisticated tools such as DOE (Design of Experiments), SPC (Statistical Process Control) and DSS (Design for Six Sigma).

How to identify improvement opportunities ?

  1. Identify the top 10 problems with high variation, top hidden factory problems, backlogs, or high down time issues.
  2. For each of the above problems, identify all the underlying processes.
  3. Pick the processes that are:
    • Very well defined
    • Have easily identifiable starting and ending points
    • Have clearly defined objectives

Do Not Pick

  1. Processes that are being fixed by another team
  2. Problems for which the solution is identified but causes of the problem are not known

Once you go through the above list, you will have now identified a bunch of processes that meet the above criterion. Now you need use “Selection Grid” or “Selection Matrix” method to prioritize from this list and pick the process with the highest “Selection grid/Matrix Score”.

Selection Grid or Selection Matrix

We need to identify and define all possible criterion to which each of these projects can be measured. Good examples of criterion are:

  • Doability by the existing team (resource criterion)
  • Financial Viability (Financial criterion)
  • Importance to other divisions (Cross division/company criterion)
  • How important is it to the customer (Customer Criterion)

Once you define these criterion, assign a weight-age on a scale of 1 to 3 to each of the above criterion.

Create an excel worksheet with a table containing criterion along the horizontal axis (columns) and the projects along the vertical axis (rows). Insert one row above the criterion labels and in that put the weight of the criterion (which is a constant across all projects). Now for each of the projects, define how well it meets a given criterion on a scale of 1-5. Put that number in the cell corresponding to the Project row and criterion column. Once this grid is filled with the scores for all projects for all criterion, we need to compute the overall score of the project which is the sum of products of criterion weightage and the project score for meeting that criterion.

For example, for project 1, the score is: 1X3 + 3X2 + 3X1 + 3X3 + 2X2 + 5X1 = 30

Once the total score is computed for all projects, you can order them in descending sort order and the top project with the highest score is the first choice to pick.

Six-Sigma-Project-Selection-Grid-Matrix

Copyright 2005-2016 KnowledgeHills. Privacy Policy. Contact .